Current Review of Delta Variant of SARS-CoV-2

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.main##

  •   Selia Chowdhury

  •   Mehedi Hasan Bappy

  •   Samia Chowdhury

  •   Md. Shahraj Chowdhury

  •   Nurjahan Shipa Chowdhury

Abstract

Mutations are causing SARS-CoV-2 to alter its genetic structure to improve its potential to elude the immune system, making vaccine buildout against the virus more difficult. Multiple SARS-CoV-2 variants have been found up to this point; based on their impact on public health some are considered variants of concern (VOCs) and some are considered variants of interests. VOCs are linked to superior transmissibility, a decline in neutralization by natural or vaccine induced antibodies, evading capability of detection, and a reduction in the efficacy of vaccines or therapeutics. In this article, a SARS-CoV-2 subtype, known as Delta, has been revised to provide the current state of the art and an appropriate foundation for future research works. The evolution, pathogenesis, current trends of transmission, associated symptoms, suggested prevention and treatments, and vaccine efficacy of Delta variant are reviewed and discussed.


Keywords: COVID-19, delta, variants, treatment, vaccine efficacy

References

Coronavirus Cases [Internet]. Worldometers.info. [cited 2021 Oct 20]. Available from: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/.

Tracking SARS-CoV-2 variants [Internet]. Who.int. [cited 2021 Oct 20]. Available from: https://www.who.int/en/activities/tracking-SARS-CoV-2-variants.

CDC. Delta variant: What we know about the science [Internet]. Cdc.gov. 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 21]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/variants/delta-variant.html?s_cid=11512:cdc%20delta%20variant:sem.ga:p:RG:GM:gen:PTN:FY21.

Cosdon N. Delta variant causes unprecedented COVID-19 disease in children [Internet]. Contagion Live. 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 21]. Available from: https://www.contagionlive.com/view/delta-variant-icauses-unprecedented-covid-19-disease-in-children.

GISAID - hCov19 Variants [Internet]. Gisaid.org. [cited 2021 Oct 21]. Available from: https://www.gisaid.org/hcov19-variants/.

IANS. Delta coronavirus variant has spread to 185 countries, says WHO [Internet]. Business-standard.com. 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.business-standard.com/article/current-affairs/delta-coronavirus-variant-has-spread-to-185-countries-says-who-121092200721_1.html.

CDC. COVID Data Tracker [Internet]. Cdc.gov. 2020 [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/.

CDC. What is Genomic Surveillance? [Internet]. Cdc.gov. 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/variants/variant-surveillance.html.

Wikipedia contributors. SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=SARS-CoV-2_Delta_variant&oldid=1055338617.

CDC. SARS-CoV-2 Variant Classifications and Definitions [Internet]. Cdc.gov. 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/variants/variant-info.html.

Gordon DE, Jang GM, Bouhaddou M, Xu J, Obernier K, White KM, et al. A SARS-CoV-2 protein interaction map reveals targets for drug repurposing. Nature. 2020; 583(7816): 459–468.

Cherian S, Potdar V, Jadhav S, Yadav P, Gupta N, Das M, et al. SARS-CoV-2 spike mutations, L452R, T478K, E484Q and P681R, in the second wave of COVID-19 in Maharashtra, India. Microorganisms. 2021; 9(7).

Becerra A, Muñoz-Velasco I, Aguilar-Cámara A, Cottom-Salas W, Cruz-González A, Vázquez-Salazar A, et al. Two short Low complexity regions (LCRs) are hallmark sequences of the Delta SARS-CoV- 2 variant spike protein. Research Square. 2021.

Chowdhury S, Bappy MH. On the delta plus variant of SARS-CoV-2. ResearchGate. [Preprint] 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.27004.46724/1.

Kannan SR, Spratt AN, Cohen AR, Naqvi SH, Chand HS, Quinn TP, et al. Evolutionary analysis of the delta and delta plus variants of the SARS-CoV-2 viruses. J Autoimmun. 2021; 124(102715): 102715.

CDC. Symptoms of COVID-19 [Internet]. Cdc.gov. 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html.

ZOE COVID Study - Help slow the spread of COVID-19 [Internet]. Joinzoe.com. [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://covid.joinzoe.com/us-2.

FDA. Fact sheet for health care providers emergency use authorization (eua) of regen-cov [Internet]. Fda.gov. [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/media/145611/download.

FDA. Fact sheet for health care providers emergency use authorization (Eua) of bamlanivimab and etesevimab [Internet]. Fda.gov. [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/media/145802/download.

FDA. Fact sheet for healthcare providers emergency use authorization (Eua) of sotrovimab [Internet]. Fda.gov. [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/media/149534/download.

Planas D, Veyer D, Baidaliuk A, Staropoli I, Guivel-Benhassine F, Rajah MM, et al. Reduced sensitivity of SARS-CoV-2 variant Delta to antibody neutralization. Nature. 2021; 596(7871): 276–80.

Hinton DM. Convalescent Plasma EUA Letter of Authorization 06032021 [Internet]. Fda.gov. [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/media/141477/download.

UpToDate [Internet]. Uptodate.com. [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/covid-19-management-in-hospitalized-adults?search=COVID%20treatment&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1.

Mehta P, McAuley DF, Brown M, Sanchez E, Tattersall RS, Manson JJ, et al. COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression. Lancet. 2020; 395(10229): 1033–1034.

Lopez Bernal J, Andrews N, Gower C, Gallagher E, Simmons R, Thelwall S, et al. Effectiveness of Covid-19 vaccines against the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant. N Engl J Med. 2021; 385(7): 585–594.

Moline HL, Whitaker M, Deng L, Rhodes JC, Milucky J, Pham H, et al. Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines in preventing hospitalization among adults aged ≥65 years - COVID-NET, 13 states, February-April 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021; 70(32): 1088–1093.

Tenforde MW, Olson SM, Self WH, Talbot HK, Lindsell CJ, Steingrub JS, et al. Effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna vaccines against COVID-19 among hospitalized adults aged ≥65 years - United States, January-march 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021; 70(18): 674–679.

van Gils MJ, Lavell AHA, van der Straten K, Appelman B, Bontjer I, Poniman M, et al. Four SARS-CoV-2 vaccines induce quantitatively different antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 variants [Internet]. bioRxiv. [Preprint]. 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.09.27.21264163.

Stowe J, Andrews N, Gower C, Gallagher E, Utsi L, Simmons R, et al. Effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines against hospital admission with the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant [Internet]. Khub.net. [Preprint] 2021. Available from: https://khub.net/web/phe-national/public-library/-/document_library/v2WsRK3ZlEig/view/479607266.

Jagadeesh Kumar V, Sowpati DT, Munigela A, Banu S, Siva AB, Sasikala M, et al. Clinical outcomes in vaccinated individuals hospitalized with Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2 [Internet]. bioRxiv. [Preprint] 2021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.07.13.21260417.

Cevik M, Grubaugh ND, Iwasaki A, Openshaw P. COVID-19 vaccines: Keeping pace with SARS-CoV-2 variants. Cell. 2021; 184(20): 5077–81.

Tregoning JS, Flight KE, Higham SL, Wang Z, Pierce BF. Progress of the COVID-19 vaccine effort: viruses, vaccines and variants versus efficacy, effectiveness and escape. Nat Rev Immunol. 2021; 21(10): 626–636.

Chowdhury S, Bappy MH, Chowdhury S, Chowdhury MS, Chowdhury NS. COVID-19 induced cardiovascular complications and recent therapeutic advances. EJMED. 2021; 3(6): 17–22.

Office of the Commissioner. FDA authorizes booster dose of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine for certain populations [Internet]. Fda.gov. 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/fda-authorizes-booster-dose-pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccine-certain-populations.

Office of the Commissioner. Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: FDA takes additional actions on the use of a booster dose for COVID-19 vaccines [Internet]. Fda.gov. 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-takes-additional-actions-use-booster-dose-covid-19-vaccines.

CDC. COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Shots [Internet]. Cdc.gov. 2021 [cited 2021 Oct 24]. Available from: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/booster-shot.html.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

##plugins.themes.bootstrap3.article.details##

How to Cite
Chowdhury, S., Bappy, M. H., Chowdhury, S., Chowdhury, M. S., & Chowdhury, N. S. (2021). Current Review of Delta Variant of SARS-CoV-2. European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, 3(6), 23–29. https://doi.org/10.24018/ejmed.2021.3.6.1120

Most read articles by the same author(s)